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From the fifteenth century, however, LLadies has been a stream of biographical works tabaqat that shed much light on the women of the city. Reading such important sources shows how women actively participated in the public life of the city, including its intellectual circles, contrary to Orientalist stereotypes. By exploring the multiple roles of Meccan women in the fifteenth century, the hope is to prompt further study of their ificance and its historical implications.

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His grave had been levelled with the ground, and his tomb laid low. This army included three contingents, led by Kopek, Iqbalmand, and Tai-Bu. His associates then entered the room and beheaded Kafur, also killing two or three gatekeepers who had attempted to protect him. The story may just have been Kafur's propaganda. It appears that Kafur, `zz considered these officers his rivals and a threat, convinced Alauddin to carry out this purge.

Historian Abraham Eralyhowever, believes that Barani's criticism of Kafur is not credible as Barani was deeply prejudiced against Kafur, presumably because of Kafur's non- TurkicHindu origins and eunuch status.

After the short ceremony, Kafur would send Shihabuddin to his mother, and dismiss the courtiers. He gave this ring to his general, Sumbul, and asked him to march to Gwalior and take control of the fort, using the ring as a symbol of royal authority.

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It appears that Kafur and other officers of non-Turkic origin Ladiies to counter the Khalaj establishment of the Sultanate. Based on Barani's description, scholars Ruth Vanita and Saleem Kidwai believe that Alauddin and Kafur were aant a homosexual relationship. He obtained Alauddin's permission to lead an expedition there. There, he read out a will of the late sultan that named Shihabuddin as his successor while disinheriting Khizr Khan, and then seated Shihabuddin on the throne as the new Sultan.

Kafur subdued him, and annexed Devagiri to the Delhi Sultanate. Kafur remained in Devagiri as governor of the newly annexed territory for two years, until he was urgently summoned to Delhi when Alauddin's health began deteriorating. Kafur convinced Alauddin to order the killing of Alp Khan in the royal palace. According to Isami, Alauddin was too weak to speak during the meeting, but his silence was taken as consent. Other historians and scholars [40] [41] [42] also believe Alauddin and Kafur were lovers in a sexually intimate relationship.

He would then meet the officers in his chambers on the ground floor, and issue various orders.

A note on meccan women in the fifteenth century

He also imprisoned Mubarak Shahanother adult son of Alauddin. This may be the origin hhat his name Thqt Na'ib, although some historians believe this relates instead to his later, and more important, role of Na'ib-i Sultan. Kafur returned to Delhi in June with a huge amount of wealth obtained from the defeated king. Reading such important sources shows how women actively participated in the public life of the city, including its intellectual circles, contrary to Orientalist stereotypes.

He Lqdies Sumbul to send the fort's governor to Delhi, and ordered Sumbul to return to Delhi after blinding Khizr Khan, who had been imprisoned in Gwalior. Becoming the new Sultan's step-father was probably Kafur's way of legitimizing his power. He had entrusted the responsibility of the government and the control of the servants to this useless, ungrateful, ingratiate, sodomite.

Malik kafur

Mubashshir, who had been permitted to carry arms in the royal quarters since Alauddin's day, wounded Kafur with his sword. He had 52, horsemen. He was a most wise and intelligent minister, and acquired many countries, on which the horses of former sovereigns had never placed their hoofs, and he caused the Khutba of Sultan Ala-ud-din to be repeated there. But Malik Shahin had fled, fearing a Vaghela resurgence in the neighbouring territory of Gujarat. Alauddin appointed Kafur instead.

This story was corroborated to some extent by Ibn Battuta.

He ordered the ministries of revenue, secretariat, war, and commerce to maintain the laws and regulations established by Alauddin. Tsj this meeting, Alauddin's six-year-old son Shihabuddin was declared the new heir apparent, and it was decided that Kafur would act as his regent after Alauddin's death. Malik Nanakwith Malik Kafur. When Kafur became suspicious of a conspiracy against him, he summoned Mubashshir to his room. Historian Banarsi Prasad Saksena states that Alauddin was infatuated with Kafur during the last years of his reign, but believes that the closeness between the two was not sexual.

He removed several experienced administrators, abolished the office of wazir prime ministerand even executed the minister Sharaf Qa'ini. From the fifteenth century, however, there has been a stream of biographical works tabaqat that shed much light on the women of the city. This claim, however, is based on the erroneous identification of another officer, called Malik Nayak a.

By exploring the multiple roles of Meccan women in the fifteenth century, the htat is to prompt further study of their ificance and its historical implications.

A note on meccan women in the fifteenth century in: hawwa volume 14 issue 3 ()

These s are latter-day fabrications. The rebellion could be suppressed only after Kafur's death.

Along with rich spoils, Kafur brought Ramachandra back to Delhi, where the Yadava king acknowledged Alauddin's suzerainty. Alauddin took measures to raise Kafur above all other officers.

Malik kafur - wikipedia

I caused his tomb to be entirely renewed, for he was a devoted and faithful subject. This resulted in the epithet hazar-dinari.

Before burying Alauddin, he had taken the royal ring from the Sultan's finger. The royal canopy and the royal pavilion were sent with Kafur, and the officers were directed to pay their respects to Kafur daily and to take their orders from him. His mausoleum existed in the 14th century, when it was repaired by Sultan Firuz Shah Tughlaq r.

Wwnt to Barani's near-contemporarythe paiks decided to kill Kafur on their thay initiative.